KEBIJAKAN PEMENUHAN KEBUTUHAN DASAR LANSIA DAN OPTIMUM AGING: KAJIAN LITERATUR

Arnita Afriyani Adam, Dini Widinarsih

Abstract

Lanjut usia (lansia) adalah seseorang yang telah mencapai usia 60 tahun ke atas. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Af airs (UNDESA, 2015) memproyeksikan jumlah orang berusia 60 tahun ke atas mencapai 2 miliar pada tahun 2050 dan akan terus meningkat hingga lebih dari tiga kali lipat pada tahun 2100. Peningkatan jumlah penduduk lansia menjadikan lansia salah satu kelompok penting diperhatikan agar tidak menjadi beban ekonomi dan sosial. Oleh karena itu, perlu ada pemanfaatan potensi lansia dan pengupayaan bentuk pemenuhan hak lansia untuk mencapai kualitas hidup yang optimal (optimum aging). Artikel ini bertujuan mendeskripsikan kebijakan pemenuhan kebutuhan dasar lansia agar menjadi optimum aging. Artikel ini disusun dengan metode kajian literatur pada laporan resmi, statistik, dan riset-riset sebelumnya. Kajian literatur yang dilakukan meliputi context review, methodological review, dan theoretical review. Dari context review terungkap adanya 8 (delapan) kebutuhan dasar lansia meliputi pelayanan kesehatan, makanan, perumahan, finansial, keamanan, pendidikan, aktualisasi diri dan hubungan sosial. Terungkap pula adanya beberapa kebijakan di beberapa negara untuk mengatasi permasalahan lansia. Inti hasil methodological review menunjukkan bahwa jenis pendekatan kualitatif dan kajian literatur banyak digunakan pada riset terkait lansia. Dari theoretical review intinya terlihat bahwa penggunaan teori hierarki kebutuhan manusia kebutuhan dasar lansia membantu pemahaman permasalahan yang dihadapi lansia dan kebijakan yang tepat untuk menanganinya.
KATA KUNCI: lansia, kebijakan kebutuhan dasar lansia, optimum aging, kajian literatur.

Elderly (elderly) is someone who has reached the age of 60 years and over. The United Nations Department of Economic and Social Af airs (UNDESA, 2015) projects that the number of people aged 60 years and over will reach 2 billion by 2050, and will continue to increase to more than three times by 2100. The increasing number of elderly population makes the elderly one of the It is important to pay attention to groups so that they do not become an economic and social burden. Therefore, it is necessary to utilize the potential of the elderly and seek forms of fulfilling the rights of the elderly to achieve optimal quality of life (optimum aging). This article aims to describe the policy of meeting the basic needs of the elderly in order to become optimum aging. This article was compiled using the literature review method on of icial reports, statistics and previous research. The literature review conducted includes context review, methodological review, and theoretical review. From the context review, it was revealed that there were 8 (eight) basic needs of the elderly including health services, food, housing, finance, security, education, self-actualization and social relations. It was also revealed that there are several policies in several countries to address the problems of the elderly. The core results of the methodological review show that the type of qualitative approach and literature review is widely used in research related to the elderly. From the theoretical review, it can be seen that the use of hierarchical theory of basic human needs for the elderly helps in understanding the problems faced by the elderly and the appropriate policies to deal with them.

KEYWORDS: elderly, policy on the basic needs of the elderly, optimum aging, literature review.

Keywords

lansia, kebijakan, kebutuhan dasar lansia, optimum aging, kajian literatur.

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